Planning of pig farm area
After selecting the site, it is necessary to reasonably plan the roads, drainage systems and greening of the whole farm, and arrange the location of each functional area and the location and orientation of each building and facility according to the short-term or long-term planning of the pig farm, based on the principles of facilitating production, epidemic prevention, land conservation, and life management and transportation, taking into account the local climate, wind direction, terrain, and the size of the pig farm buildings and facilities. During site planning, the whole site is generally divided into four functional areas: living area, production management area, production area and isolation area. In order to facilitate epidemic prevention and safe production, the above areas shall be arranged in sequence according to the local dominant wind direction and site topography throughout the year
1. Living area
The living area includes offices, reception rooms, finance rooms, canteens, dormitories, etc. This is the place where managers and family members live daily and should be set up separately. It is generally set at the upwind direction of the production area or the side parallel to the wind direction. In addition, a fence or epidemic prevention ditch should be built around the pig farm to prevent animal damage and prevent miscellaneous personnel from entering the farm area.
2. Production management area
The production management area includes the auxiliary buildings necessary for pig farm production management, such as feed processing workshop, feed warehouse, repair workshop, substation, boiler room, water pump room, etc. This area is closely related to the daily feeding work, so it should not be too far from the production area.
3. Production area
The production area is the main part of the pig farm, including all kinds of pig houses and production facilities. Its construction area generally accounts for 70%~80% of the total construction area of the whole farm. No foreign vehicles are allowed to enter the production area, and no vehicles are allowed to leave the production area. A pig loading platform shall be set up near the fence to prevent foreign vehicles from entering the pig farm. At the entrance of the production area, a special disinfection room or disinfection pool should be set up to strictly disinfect the personnel and vehicles entering the production area.
(1) The biological characteristics and production and utilization characteristics of various pig herds must be considered in the arrangement of pig houses. The pig breeding area should be located in the upwind direction of the pig farm with less people flow, and the boar breeding area should be located in the upwind direction of the pig breeding area, with a distance of more than 20m from the sow house, which can not only prevent the smell of the sow from causing adverse stimulation to the boar, but also use the smell of the boar to stimulate the oestrus of the sow. Commercial pig areas should also be treated differently, such as pregnancy pig houses and delivery pig houses (or breeding pig houses) should be located in a better location; The delivery pig house should be close to both the pregnancy pig house and the conservation pig house to facilitate the rotation of pigs; The fattening pig house should be set in the downwind direction and close to the pig loading platform.
(2) Feed processing workshop The feed processing workshop should be arranged in the middle of the pig farm. It should not only shorten the transportation distance during feeding, but also consider the convenience of transporting materials to the farm. The feed warehouse and silo should be close to the feed processing workshop.
(3) Artificial insemination room The artificial insemination room should be arranged on one side of the male pig house. If it also undertakes the breeding task of the off-site sows, double doors should be set indoors and outdoors.
4. Isolation area
The quarantine area includes the quarantine house for newly purchased breeding pigs, the isolation house for sick pigs, the veterinary room, the autopsy and treatment facilities, the compost yard and the storage facilities. This area is the key area for health and epidemic prevention and environmental protection, and should be located in the downwind or windward direction of the pig farm, and at the lower part of the terrain, so as not to affect the production of pigs. The isolation area shall be equipped with a wall with a height of more than 3m. The inlet and outlet shall be equipped with a disinfection tank containing 2% sodium hydroxide solution to avoid the spread of epidemics and environmental pollution.
The design of roads between and within the pig farms should take into account the connection between the buildings in the farm and between the pig farms and outside the farm, management and production needs, health and epidemic prevention requirements, etc. Gate must be set between living area and off-site, and between living area and production area. The gate between the living area and the production area is mainly used for fire fighting or other special circumstances when it is necessary to enter and exit. It is usually closed. Personnel must enter and exit through the disinfection "shower" dressing room. The road plays an important role in the normal operation of production activities, health and epidemic prevention and improvement of work efficiency. The roads in the site shall be divided into clean roads and dirty roads. The clean roads and dirty roads shall not cross each other, and the entrances and exits shall be separated. The function of Jingdao is to transport people and feed and products; The sewage road is a special road for transporting feces, sick pigs and waste equipment. The road surface should be solid and well drained, not too smooth, and the slope to the side should be about 10%. For large-scale pig farms, the width of main road should reach 5.5~6.5m, and the width of branch road should reach 2~3.5m.
6. Water tower
The water tower is the guarantee for the normal supply of clean drinking water. Its location should be adapted to the water source conditions, and should be arranged at the top of the pig farm.