How to choose a location for a pig farm
How to choose a location for a pig farm
The scientific and rational layout of pig farms plays an important role in normal pig raising and high efficiency. The construction of pig farms should be based on whether it can meet the biological needs of pigs, whether it is conducive to the control of the air environment in the pig house, whether it is conducive to rationally organizing production, whether it is conducive to the strict implementation of sanitation and epidemic prevention systems and measures, and whether it is conducive to creating good economic and social benefits. as standard.
The selection of pig farm sites is the key to the development of pig production. Correct selection of the site and reasonable architectural planning and layout can not only facilitate production, but also lay a good foundation for the implementation of the epidemic prevention system for pig production. In practice, practical issues such as topography, soil texture, surrounding environment, water quality, power supply, sewage and environmental protection, site area, and transportation should be comprehensively considered according to the biological characteristics of pigs, breeding methods and scale.
The terrain of the pig farm is required to be open and tidy, not too narrow and long, not too many corners, and have enough area. Pig farms should be selected in a place with slightly higher terrain, dry, flat, leeward and sunny, with gentle slopes and good drainage (with 1% to 3% gentle slopes). However, the slope should not be greater than 20%, so as not to cause inconvenience to transportation in the field. It is advisable to choose a leeward and sunny place to build a site on a sloping land, so as to prevent cold and ensure a better environment in the site area. Low-lying sites are prone to stagnant water and dampness. In summer, the ventilation is poor and the air is sultry, which is easy to breed mosquitoes, flies and microorganisms. In winter, it is cold and cold, so it is not suitable to choose low-lying and humid places. In order to ensure that the flood season is not threatened by floods, the site is required to be located in Gaozao, which should be above the historical maximum flood line.
2. Soil texture
The physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil all affect the health and productivity of pigs. The soil of the pig farm requires good water permeability, good air permeability, low water capacity and hygroscopicity, weak capillary action, low thermal conductivity, and good thermal insulation; it is not easy to be polluted by organic matter and pathogenic microorganisms; there is no endemic disease, and the groundwater level is low and non-swampy. Soil. Therefore, as the soil for construction, it is ideal to choose sandy loam or loam soil under the premise of ensuring that it is not polluted.
【Tips】 Reconstruction or reconstruction on old pig farm sites or other livestock and poultry farm sites should be avoided.
The transportation volume of feed, products, manure, waste, etc. in pig farms is very large, so it must have convenient transportation, sufficient power, and ensure the nearby supply of feed, the nearby sales of products, and the local treatment of manure and waste. In order to reduce production costs and prevent pollution of the surrounding environment. In order to meet the epidemic prevention needs of pig farms and prevent pollution to the surrounding environment, it is necessary to choose places far away from villages, residential areas, slaughterhouses, livestock markets, and main traffic roads, and located in the downwind direction of residential areas and drinking water sources. The pig farm should be 300~500m away from the national first- and second-class highway, more than 200m away from the third-class highway, and 50-100m away from the fourth-class highway. The distance between general pig farms and residential areas should be more than 500m, and the distance between large pig farms should be more than 1000m; , slaughterhouses, livestock markets, tanneries, paper mills, mines and other enterprises that are prone to environmental pollution.
[Tips] It is forbidden to build farms around scenic tourist areas, nature reserves, ancient building reserves, water source reserves, ecological reserves, areas with frequent natural disasters, areas with frequent epidemics of livestock and poultry, and areas with serious environmental pollution.
4. Water quality
Pig farms consume a lot of water. In addition to drinking water, there are also a lot of water for flushing pens and carcasses, cleaning and preparing feed, people's domestic water, as well as firefighting and irrigation. There are two main water sources for pig farms to choose from, namely groundwater and surface water. No matter what kind of water source is used as the production water for pig farms, it must have sufficient water, good water quality, easy protection, and convenient water intake, and must meet the hygienic standards for drinking water for livestock and poultry in my country. See Sheet 1-1 for the total daily water consumption and water consumption of each pig of various types
5. Sewage and environmental protection
The site should be far away from villages and towns and residential areas, and in the downwind or crosswind direction of the prevailing wind direction all the year round, so as to avoid polluting the environment of residential areas due to the diffusion of odors from pig farms, waste water discharge and manure processing and composting. The location of the site should be lower than the living area of the residents, so as to avoid the natural precipitation such as rain and snow on the pig farm polluting the living area of the residents. There should be farmland and orchards around the pig farm so that most or part of the manure can be consumed locally. Otherwise, sewage treatment and environmental protection should be considered as important issues in planning, in particular, groundwater and surface water sources and rivers should not be polluted. The average daily excretion of manure and urine in pig farms is shown in Sheet 1-2.
6. Site area
The land area of the pig farm depends on the task, nature, scale and specific nature of the farm. Insufficient area will cause crowded buildings, which is not conducive to improving the environment of the farm area and pig house, and will cause inconvenience to feeding management and pig epidemic prevention. The total construction area of the production area of the breeding pig farm can generally be calculated as 20~25m²/head of breeding sows, and the construction area of the auxiliary production and living management area of the pig farm can be determined according to the actual scale. The construction land area of different pig farms should not be lower than the data in Sheet 1-3.